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托福阅读否定阅读事实题中的否定考点

中国英语培训2019-06-24 17:57     供稿单位: 新航道    

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  否定事实信息题,顾名思义,就是选出和原文矛盾或在原文中未提及的选项作为答案。下面特别举几个正确选项和原文矛盾的题目作为例子,在这些例子里,否定关系被设置成了干扰项,希望引起同学们的重视。


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  例 1:(TPO 2 Desert Formation)

  The final major human cause of desertification is soil salinization resulting from overirrigation. Excess water from irrigation sinks down into the water table. If no drainage system exists, the water table rises, bringing dissolved salts to the surface. The water evaporates and the salts are left behind, creating a white crustal layer that prevents air and water from reaching the underlying soil.


  9. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as contributing to desertification EXCEPT

中国英语培训  ○ soil erosion

中国英语培训  ○ global warming

中国英语培训  ○ insufficient irrigation

中国英语培训  ○ the raising of livestock

  解析:C 选项“insufficient irrigation”和原文“overirrigation”矛盾。


中国英语培训  例 2:(TPO 3 The Long-Term Stability of Ecosystems)

  Paragraph 1: Plant communities assemble themselves flexibly, and their

  particular structure depends on the specific history of the area. Ecologists use the term “succession” to refer to the changes that happen in plant communities and ecosystems over time. The first community in a succession is called a pioneer community, while the long-lived community at the end of succession is called a climax community. Pioneer and successional plant communities are said to change over periods from 1 to 500 years. These changes—in plant numbers and the mix of species—are cumulative. Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.


中国英语培训  2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is NOT true of climax communities?

中国英语培训  ○ They occur at the end of a succession.

  ○ They last longer than any other type of community.

中国英语培训  托福第一频道2018下半年.indd 31 2018/8/13 15:41:22

中国英语培训  ○ The numbers of plants in them and the mix of species do not change.

中国英语培训  ○ They remain stable for at least 500 years at a time.

  解析:C 选项“do not change”和原文最后一句话“Climax communities themselves change but over periods of time greater than about 500 years.”矛盾。


中国英语培训  例 3:(TPO 10 Chinese Pottery)

  Paragraph 3: The earliest ceramics were fired to earthenware temperatures, but as early as the fifteenth century B.C., high-temperature stonewares were being made with glazed surfaces. During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns

中国英语培训  in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality. Whitewares produced in Hebei and Henan provinces from the seventh to the tenth centuries evolved into the highly prized porcelains of the Song dynasty (AD. 960-1279), long regarded as one of the high points in the history of China's ceramic industry.

  The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. Ceramic products also include lead-glazed tomb models of the Han dynasty, three-color lead-glazed vessels and figures of the Tang dynasty, and Ming three-color temple ornaments, in which the motifs were outlined in a raised trail of slip—as well as the many burial ceramics produced in imitation of vessels made in materials of higher intrinsic value.


中国英语培训  5. Paragraph 3 supports all of the following concerning the history of the ceramic industry in China EXCEPT:

中国英语培训  ○ The earliest high-fired ceramics were of poor quality.

中国英语培训  ○ Ceramics produced during the Tang and Ming dynasties sometimes incorporated multiple colors.

  ○ Earthenware ceramics were produced in China before stonewares were.

  ○ The Song dynasty period was notable for the production of high quality porcelain ceramics.

  解 析:A 选 项“poor quality”(not good quality) 和 原 文“During the Six Dynasties period (AD 265-589), kilns in north China were producing high-fired ceramics of good quality.”矛盾。


  三、总结

  否定考点贯穿于整个托福阅读考试中。除了上文提到的词汇题、推断题和否定事实信息题,在事实信息题、句子简化题、修辞目的题,甚至总结题中都有体现。由于篇幅所限,不能一一列举。同学们在解题时,应该对题目和文中出现的各种否定形式保持警觉,避免掉入出题者的陷阱。



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