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如何利用TPO阅读材料提高写作技能

中国英语培训2019-06-24 17:14     供稿单位: 新航道    

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中国英语培训  在托福备考过程中,考生们非常希望能够快速掌握写作技巧,为此也可能在寻找大量范文。遗憾的是,ETS 提供的官方范文数量非常有限,只有官方指南中的几篇文章;市面上的大量范文,都是机构里教授托福写作的老师写的,相对于考官写的范文,其参考价值自然大打折扣。其实,考生们往往忽略了一点,就是从 TPO 阅读文章中学习如何写独立写作。我们知道,TPO 综合写作需要先阅读一篇短文,再听一个讲座,短文的字数一般是 300 词左右,和托福独立写作的字数要求基本一致。大部分考生做完一篇综合写作后就到此为止了,很少有人回过头来再细细分析短文。如果我们在对短文内容已经了解的基础上,进一步探讨文章的写作思路和逻辑推进,就能够一举两得:既提高了阅读能力,有提高了写作技能。


  一、文章结构

  综合写作绝大部分阅读短文分为四段,开头段先交代一个背景信息,在这一

  段的最后表明作者的立场。主体段分为三段,每一段提供一个支持的分论点,并对这个分论点展开具体论述。除了没有结尾段之外,整篇短文的结构和独立写作的是一致的,当然这也是 ETS 学术论文的基本架构。所以,在写独立写作时,考生完全可以参考这个文章结构,只需要加一个结尾段就可以了。例如:TPO1

  In the United States, employees typically work five days a week for

  eight hours each day. However, many employees want to work a four-day week and are willing to accept less pay in order to do so. A mandatory p o l i c y r e q u i r i n g c o m p a n i e s t o offer their employees the option of working a four-day workweek for four-fifths (80 percent) of their normal pay would benefit the economy as a whole as well as the individual companies and the employees who decided to take the option.The shortened workweek would increase company profits because employees would feel more rested and alert, and as a result, they would make fewer costly errors in their work. Hiring more staff to ensure that the same amount of work would be accomplished would not result in additional payroll costs because four-day employees would only be paid 80 percent of the normal rate. In the end, companies would have

  fewer overworked and error-prone employees for the same money, which would increase company profits.For the country as a whole, one of the primary benefits of offering this option to employees is that it would reduce unemployment rates. If many full-time employeesstartedworking fewer hours, some of their workload would have to be shifted to others. Thus, for every four employees who went on an 80 percent week, a new employee could be hired at the 80 percent rate.Finally, the option of a four-day workweek would be better for individual employees. Employees who could afford a lower salary in exchange for more free time could improve the quality of their lives by spending the extra time with their families, pursuing private interests, or enjoying leisure activities.


  二、主体段的写法

  从上文我们可以看到,在一个主体段中,都是先写一个主题句(Topic Sentence),即这一段的主旨,然后对这个主题句展开具体解释说明。例如上文中,主体段 1 的主题句是 The shortened workweek would increase company profits。 主 体 段 2 的 主 题 句 是For the country as a whole, one of the primary benefits of offering this option to employees is that it would reduce unemployment rates. 主体 3 的主题句是 the option of a four-day workweek would be better for individual employees. 对这

  些主题句做一些分析,我们还能学习写主题句的方法(1)简明扼要。这里的三个主题句两个是简单句,一个用了复合句,都非常简洁的说明了公司这种做法

  的好处。

  (2)同义替换。这体现在表达公司这一政策时采用的不同表达:The shortened workweek,offering this option to employees,it, the option of a

中国英语培训  four-day workweek。这些同义替换体现了词汇多样化这一学术写作的要求。

中国英语培训  分析了主题句的写法之后,我们再来分析文章是如何扩展这一主题句的。主体段 1 在主题句后面紧跟了一个原因状语从句,然后用一个并列分句写出了这

中国英语培训  一选择的结果(because employees would feel more rested and alert, and as a result, they would make fewer costly errors in their work.)。然后

  进一步分析雇用更多公司为什么会获得更多利润。主体段 2 先写了一个 if 条件句,然后引出这一选择的结果,thus ...。主体段 3 扩展时用了一个定语

中国英语培训  从句(Employees who could afford a lower salary in exchange for more free time),实际上这个定语从句相当于一个 if 条件句,后面的主句则是这一

  选择的结果。从这里我们可以看出,扩展主题句的一个重要方法:因果论证法,即分析某种做法的原因,尤其是结果。

  当然,从短文中我们也可以学习到一些好的句式和表达。如 as a result,ensure that ...,result in,one of the primary benefits of is that,if ... Thus ...。sb who ... would ... by doing ...

中国英语培训  这些表达展现了非常好的逻辑关系,这是许多考生欠缺的。总之,TPO 综合写作中的 50 多篇阅读短文长度和独立写作的要求差不多,文章结构一致,都遵循着学术写作的规范,相比市面上很多乱七八糟的参考范文来说,具有更高的参考价值。如果考生能够精心分析这些文章,既也能够扩大词汇量,提高阅读能力,又能够学习地道的表达,提高写作能力。



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